Type 1 vs Type 2 Diabetes: Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

Type 1 vs. Type 2 Diabetes: Diabetes is a long-lasting physical condition that depends on how your body converts food into energy. Our body converts most of the food we eat into sugar (glucose) and circulates it in the blood. When the amount of sugar in the blood increases, it signals the pancreas to secrete insulin. Insulin converts blood sugar into energy in the cells of the body.

Diabetes is a dangerous disease. This problem occurs when our pancreas cannot produce the required amount of insulin or the insulin produced in our body is not being used properly. Actually, insulin is a hormone, which controls the amount of glucose in the blood.

Blood glucose and increased blood sugar are also called hyperglycemia. It is a common effect of uncontrolled diabetes that over time severely damages many of the body’s systems, especially the nerves and blood vessels.

In the year 2014, 8.5 percent of people above the age of 18 were suffering from diabetes. In the year 2019, 15 lakh people died due to diabetes. Diabetes was directly or indirectly responsible for 48 percent of those who died under the age of 70.

On the other hand, 4 lakh 60 thousand people died due to kidney disease, in which diabetes was the main cause of death. Between 2000 and 2019, the death rate due to diabetes has increased by 13 percent in lower-middle-income countries.

If diabetes is not treated properly on time, it can cause severe damage to the nerves, eyes, kidneys, and other organs.

Types Of Diabetes

Type 1 vs. Type 2 Diabetes: Diabetes is a disease related to metabolism, which gradually weakens the body of a person. There are three types of diabetes.

  • Type 1 Diabetes
  • Type 2 Diabetes
  • Gestational Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Type-1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease. In this problem, the immune system itself attacks the tissues in the person’s pancreas, which produces insulin. It is not yet known why the immune system attacks the tissues of the pancreas.

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Type 2 Diabetes

When the cells of the body do not respond to insulin. Because of this type-2 diabetes occurs. In such a situation, the amount of sugar in the blood starts increasing. This is the most common type of diabetes in the world. 90-95 percent of the cases in the world are found in type-2 diabetes only.

Gestational Diabetes

High blood sugar during pregnancy is called gestational diabetes. In this disease, the blood sugar level of pregnant women increases significantly. According to research, gestational diabetes occurs between 24 and 28 weeks of pregnancy. But there is no need to worry about this disease because this type of diabetes gets cured on its own after a few days of the birth of the child.

What is Pre-Diabetes

If a person’s blood sugar is higher than the average level, but not high enough to be treated as type 2 diabetes, the condition is called prediabetes. This situation arises when insulin is not used properly in our body. This situation can later turn into type-2 diabetes.

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Symptoms Of Diabetes

  • Hunger pangs
  • Increased thirst
  • Weight loss
  • Frequent urination
  • Blurred vision
  • Feeling very tired
  • Slow healing of blisters and wounds
Symptoms Of Diabetes

Type-1 Diabetes Symptoms

  • Hunger pangs
  • Being very thirsty
  • Persistent weight loss
  • Frequent urination
  • Have blurry vision
  • Feeling tired
  • Frequent mood swings

Symptoms Of Type-2 Diabetes

  • Increased appetite
  • Increased thirst
  • Frequent urination
  • Blurred vision
  • Be tired
  • Slow healing
  • Frequent infections

Symptoms Of Gestational Diabetes

  • No specific symptoms
  • This type of diabetes can be detected only by regular blood sugar tests.
  • These tests are done in the 24th and 28th week of pregnancy.

Reasons for diabetes

  • The causes of different types of diabetes also differ.

Cause of type 1 diabetes

Till now even doctors and scientists have not been able to find out the clear causes of type-1 diabetes.

Genetic factors: Our immune system for some reason attacks the insulin-producing tissues in the pancreas, which leads to type-1 diabetes.

Causes of type-2 diabetes

  • Weight gain or obesity
  • Family history of diabetes
  • Sedentary lifestyle
  • Having prediabetes
  • Having a close relative with type 2 diabetes
  • High cholesterol
  • High blood pressure
  • Smoking/drinking

Treatment Of Diabetes

Due to diabetes, the level of sugar in the blood increases, through its treatment, the level of sugar present in the blood is controlled. So that it can prevent the harm caused to the body.

Type 1 Diabetes Treatment

  1. Insulin support: This usually requires insulin therapy. In this, patients are given insulin injections according to their glucose levels.
  2. Blood sugar level test: A blood test is necessary to know the blood sugar level after every meal or exercise. Therefore, after every work, meal, or medicine, check the amount of glucose present in the blood. This is necessary for the treatment of type 1 diabetes.
  3. Dietary changes: Reduce carbohydrate food, and eat a balanced diet. Consume green leafy vegetables.
  4. Lifestyle Changes: Stay stress-free, and exercise to control weight.

Type 2 Diabetes Treatment:

  1. Medication: A blood glucose meter or continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) can help monitor blood glucose levels daily. The doctor may also recommend diabetes medications, insulin therapy, or other injectable non-insulin medications to keep the disease under control.
  2. Dietary Changes: Eat fiber-rich and low-calorie food. Due to this, the amount of sugar in the blood is controlled.
  3. Lifestyle Changes: Do yoga daily. By doing yoga, the capacity of absorption of glucose by the cells increases.

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1. What is regular blood sugar?

The expected values for normal fasting blood glucose concentration are between 70 mg/dL (3.9 mmol/L) and 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L).

2. What are the 5 warning signs of diabetes?

Urinate (pee) a lot, often at night.
Are very thirsty.
Lose weight without trying.
Are very hungry.
Have blurred vision.
Have numb or tingling hands or feet.
Feel very tired.
Have very dry skin.

3. What is the best treatment for diabetes?

You’ll need to use insulin to treat your diabetes. You take the insulin by injection or by using a pump.

4. What should your blood sugar be 2 hours after eating?

A blood sugar target is the range you try to reach as much as possible. These are typical targets: Before a meal: 80 to 130 mg/dL. Two hours after the start of a meal: Less than 180 mg/dL.

Updated: October 28, 2023 — 1:48 PM